Based on systematic research of studies published since the year 2000, this comprehensive meta-analysis investigated how the use of technology can enhance learning in secondary school mathematics and science (grade levels 5–13). All studies (k = 92) compared learning outcomes of students using digital tools to those of a control group taught without the use of digital tools. Overall, digital tool use had a positive effect on student learning outcomes (g = 0.65, p < .001). The provision of teacher trainings on digital tool use significantly moderated the overall effect. Use of intelligent tutoring systems or simulations such as dynamic mathematical tools was significantly more beneficial than hypermedia systems. On a descriptive level, the effect size was larger when digital tools were used in addition to other instruction methods and not as a substitute. The results open up new directions for future research and can inform evidence-based decision-making on the use of digital tools in education.